At the inception of PHRF-Lake Ontario, Time-on-Time scoring was proposed and included in the PHRF-LO Charter.  Although Time-on-Time scoring is not new, Lake Ontario was, to the best of our knowledge, the first to implement it through PHRF handicapping. Subsequent to the initial inclusion, Charles Kramer of Sodus Bay Yacht Club, a PHRF-LO Handicapper, completed an analysis and derived the following formula based in part on his interpretation of the published results of the original H. Irving Pratt Ocean Race Handicapping project at M.I.T.  This formula was adopted by PHRF-LO in 1985 and represents an improvement over the conversion method that was initially used.

Q = .045
S = Scratch Boat = ASP 171
R = (8.36 x 106) ÷ ((ASP + 384.3)2)
RS = (8.36 x 106) ÷ ((171+ 384.3)2)
TOT = ((1 ÷ √RS + Q) ÷ ((1 ÷ √R) +Q))
or TOT = (685.411 ÷ (ASP + 514.411))